large-scale problems of society
However, in 1928, after a series of publications in the journal Revolution and Culture, edited by N. I. Bukharin, supported by the section of literature and art of the Communist Academy, a new aggravation of the ideological struggle in art began. Realistic traditions and easel art were opposed by new types of creativity (photography, design, cinema), and models of Western modernism were offered as a standard. This had consequences for Vkhutein (as the Academy of Arts was called in 1923). The directors were accused of restoring academism. The dissatisfaction of some teachers and students of the institute was supported by the art groups “Proletariat”, “Circle”, a group of P. N. Filonov, who opposed, among other things, any control in the development of culture in general and the art school in particular. Continue reading
Russian avant-garde of his goals and aspirations.
Like the trends of modernism that preceded it, the avant-garde was aimed at a radical transformation of human consciousness by means of art, at an aesthetic revolution that would destroy the spiritual inertness of existing society, while its artistic and utopian strategies and tactics were much more decisive, anarchistly rebellious. Not satisfied with the creation of exquisite “foci” of beauty and mystery that oppose the low-lying materiality of life, the avant-garde introduced into its images the crude matter of life, “street poetics”, the chaotic rhythm of the modern city, nature endowed with powerful creative and destructive power, he repeatedly emphasized declaratively in In their works, the principle of “anti-art”, thereby rejecting not only the old, more traditional styles, but also the established concept of art as a whole. Continue reading
By depicting reality on a two-dimensional plane, painting creates the illusion of three-dimensionality and volume: people and objects appear to be at different distances from the viewer — some closer, others farther, and nature depicts a current that sky seems to stretch to the horizon. For example, in a relatively small picture by I. Levitan “Vladimirka” the road is perceived as infinity.
The impression of depth is achieved using the law of perspective. A linear perspective makes it possible to build the apparent outlines of objects, and an aerial perspective – a change in color and shape. Thanks to chiaroscuro, an illusion of volume, bulge is created. Chiaroscuro is formed by a subtle and accurate combination of the illuminated and unlit side of the objects depicted in the picture. Continue reading