ART UNIONS AND CREATIVE UNIONS OF RUSSIA ON THE TURN OF THE XIX-XX CENTURIES (part 3)
"Bauhaus" (German: Bauhaus - building house) - art educational institution and creative association in Germany. It was founded in 1919 by the architect V. Groppius in Weimar, in 1925 it…

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LENINGRAD SCHOOL OF PAINTING (part 1)
The history of the Leningrad school of painting covers the period from the beginning of the 1930s to the beginning of the 1990s. Having arisen in the midst of a…

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VITEBSK ART SCHOOL (part 3)
The circle of sources covering this time in the biography of the master is mainly identified and studied, therefore all sorts of new information and facts are so rare and…

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RUSSIAN Vanguard. MAIN DIRECTIONS (part 2)

Russian avant-garde of his goals and aspirations.

Like the trends of modernism that preceded it, the avant-garde was aimed at a radical transformation of human consciousness by means of art, at an aesthetic revolution that would destroy the spiritual inertness of existing society, while its artistic and utopian strategies and tactics were much more decisive, anarchistly rebellious. Not satisfied with the creation of exquisite “foci” of beauty and mystery that oppose the low-lying materiality of life, the avant-garde introduced into its images the crude matter of life, “street poetics”, the chaotic rhythm of the modern city, nature endowed with powerful creative and destructive power, he repeatedly emphasized declaratively in In their works, the principle of “anti-art”, thereby rejecting not only the old, more traditional styles, but also the established concept of art as a whole. Constantly attracted the vanguard of the “strange worlds” of new science and technology – from them he took not only plot-symbolic motifs, but also many designs and techniques. On the other hand, “barbarian” archaic, ancient magic, primitive and folklore (in the form of borrowings from the art of African blacks and folk popular prints, from other “non-classical” spheres of creativity, formerly moved beyond the boundaries of fine arts) became increasingly active in art. The vanguard has given unprecedented sharpness to the world dialogue of cultures.

The main directions of the avant-garde.

In principle, avant-garde phenomena are characteristic of all transitional stages in the history of artistic culture, of individual types of art. In the twentieth century, however, the concept of the avant-garde acquired the meaning of the term to denote a powerful phenomenon of artistic culture, covering almost all of its more or less significant phenomena. With all the diversity and diversity of artistic phenomena included in this concept, they have common cultural and historical roots, the general atmosphere that gave rise to them, and many common characteristics and trends of auto-presentation. The avant-garde is, first of all, the reaction of artistic and aesthetic consciousness to the global, not yet met in the history of mankind, turning point in cultural and civilizational processes caused by scientific and technological progress (NTP) of the last century. The essence and significance for mankind of this avalanche-like process in culture has not yet been fully understood and understood adequately by scientific and philosophical thinking, but it has already largely found expression in artistic culture in the phenomena of avant-garde, modernism, postmodernism. The avant-garde is an extremely colorful, contradictory, even somewhat fundamentally antinomic phenomenon. It coexisted in an irreconcilable struggle between each other and with everything and everything, but also in constant interaction and mutual influences of current and direction, both affirming and apologizing for certain phenomena, processes, discoveries in all spheres of the cultural and civilizational field of their time, and sharply denying them. The characteristic and general features of most avant-garde phenomena include their consciously pointed experimental character; revolutionary destructive pathos regarding traditional art (especially its last stage – new European) and traditional cultural values ​​(truth, good, holiness, beautiful); a sharp protest against everything that seemed to their creators and participants retrograde, conservative, philistine, bourgeois, academic; in visual arts and literature – a demonstrative rejection of the established in the XIX century. a “direct” (realistic-naturalistic) image of visible reality, or – a mimetic principle in the narrow sense of the word (see: Mimesis); the unbridled desire to create a fundamentally new in everything and, above all, in the forms, methods and means of artistic expression; and hence the often declarative-manifest and shocking-scandalous nature of the presentation by the avant-garde representatives of themselves and their works, directions, movements, etc .; the desire to blur the boundaries between traditional types of art for the new European culture, the tendency to the synthesis of individual arts (in particular, based on synesthesia), their interpenetration. The main directions and figures of the avant-garde include Fauvism, Cubism, abstract art, Suprematism, Futurism, Dada, Expressionism, Constructivism, metaphysical painting, surrealism, naive art; dodecafonia and aleatorics in music, specific poetry, specific music, kinetic art, as well as such large figures that did not belong to any of these directions as a whole, such as Picasso, Chagall, Filonov, Klee, Matisse, Modigliani, Le Corbusier, Joyce, Proust , Kafka and some others. Only a conditional classification is possible, moreover, only by certain parameters, of a motley set of the most varied in many respects avant-garde phenomena. Artistic and aesthetic phenomenology of the main directions of the avant-garde.

VITEBSK ART SCHOOL (part 2)
Having learned the lessons of new European art and declaring himself to be a rapidly maturing master, M. Chagall returned to Vitebsk on the eve of the First World War.…

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RUSSIAN ACADEMY OF ART OF ST. PETERSBURG (part 2)
Under Catherine II, in 1764, a new detailed Charter of the Imperial Academy of Arts was adopted, and the close sovereign Ivan Ivanovich Betskoy became president. The Empress wrote: "For…

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LENINGRAD SCHOOL OF PAINTING (part 3)
And how to explain such a change of state to "left" art, whose representatives continued to occupy key posts in all the organs of this state, which were in charge…

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PRINT. CLASSIFICATION AND VARIETIES (part 1)
An engraving (from French estampe) is a generalized name for works of printed graphics, which is an engraving or any other print on paper from a printing form. There are…

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