ART UNIONS AND CREATIVE UNIONS OF RUSSIA ON THE TURN OF THE XIX-XX CENTURIES (part 3)
"Bauhaus" (German: Bauhaus - building house) - art educational institution and creative association in Germany. It was founded in 1919 by the architect V. Groppius in Weimar, in 1925 it…

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RUSSIAN ACADEMY OF ART OF ST. PETERSBURG (part 2)
Under Catherine II, in 1764, a new detailed Charter of the Imperial Academy of Arts was adopted, and the close sovereign Ivan Ivanovich Betskoy became president. The Empress wrote: "For…

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LENINGRAD SCHOOL OF PAINTING (part 1)
The history of the Leningrad school of painting covers the period from the beginning of the 1930s to the beginning of the 1990s. Having arisen in the midst of a…

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ideological

STYLES AND DIRECTIONS IN THE FINE ART (part 1)

The number of styles and directions is huge, if not endless. The key feature by which works can be grouped by style is the unified principles of artistic thinking. The change of some methods of artistic thinking by others (alternation of types of compositions, methods of spatial constructions, peculiarities of color) is not accidental. Historically changeable is our perception of art.
Building a system of styles in a hierarchical order, we will adhere to the Eurocentric tradition. The largest in the history of art is the concept of the era. Each era is characterized by a certain “picture of the world”, which consists of philosophical, religious, political ideas, scientific ideas, psychological characteristics of worldview, ethical and moral norms, aesthetic criteria of life, which distinguish one era from another. Continue reading

HISTORY OF THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE DUTCH AND FLEMAND STILL LIFE (part 2)

The developed manufactory, which arose on the basis of marine industries and shipping, a huge colonial economy and a leading role in world trade, provided Holland with an economic upsurge. Natural sciences are being developed to cater for the increased needs of the economy. Culture is blooming. Holland is becoming the center of European typography, and its universities enjoy universal fame. Significant successes are made by fiction, professional Dutch theater appears, outstanding works arise in the field of architecture, graphics flourish, and finally, the most characteristic, specifically Dutch art – painting reaches unprecedented heights.
We pay tribute to the brave Dutch seafarers, respect the achievements of Dutch opticians and doctors, philosophers and lawyers, but Dutch painters have overshadowed their glory for centuries. Continue reading

PRINT. CLASSIFICATION AND VARIETIES (part 1)
An engraving (from French estampe) is a generalized name for works of printed graphics, which is an engraving or any other print on paper from a printing form. There are…

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HISTORY OF ORIGIN AND DEVELOPMENT OF ART OF ENAMEL (part 1)
The history of enamel art, as well as jewelry, has more than three thousand years of history. When and where was the first enameling, i.e. colored glass in the molten…

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HISTORY OF THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE DUTCH AND FLEMAND STILL LIFE (part 1)
In the 50s and 60s of the 16th century, the situation in the Netherlands became extremely tense. If in the first half of the century the burden of economic exploitation…

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