TALKS ON THE ISLANDS OF ART (part 1)
Traveling in the endless sea of ​​the Internet, you can find a great many large and small sites where people share their art, want to be heard and seen, but…

Continue reading →

PRINT. CLASSIFICATION AND VARIETIES (part 1)
An engraving (from French estampe) is a generalized name for works of printed graphics, which is an engraving or any other print on paper from a printing form. There are…

Continue reading →

EXCURSION TO THE WORLD OF BATIKA
Batik - batik is an Indonesian word. Translated from Indonesian, the word “va” means cotton fabric, and “-tik” means “dot” or “drop”. Ambatik - draw, drop, hatch. The batik technique…

Continue reading →

HISTORY OF THE ORIGIN AND DEVELOPMENT OF MONUMENTAL PAINTING (part 2)

The term “fresco” came to Russia from Italy no earlier than the 18th century. This can be judged by the fact that even in the XVI-XVII centuries it was not found in Russian documents, and they wrote about this nature of work in annals, charters, and decrees: “a wall letter in raw gesso.” The term “wall writing” meant all paintings on architectural surfaces made using any technique, whether it was painted on raw gesso, on an emulsion binder or adhesive.
The mural was widespread in past eras. It is assumed that she was known in Ancient Greece, she wrote in ancient Rome, Byzantium, in Russia X-XII centuries. Numerous murals are made in medieval Europe.
Significant and outstanding works are created in this technique. Starting the conversation about the mural as a mural technique, it should immediately be said that there was no single mural technique, that is, a single writing system on moist calcareous soil. This technique, originating in the depths of ancient culture, was then spread to the entire European culture region, and naturally that during its application by different peoples and for a considerable time it changed in accordance with the artistic tasks that faced the masters of a certain era and region, based on the traditions of craftsmanship and properties of steel materials. The only thing that is characteristic of all its modifications is the lime binder of its primers and paints. Everything else is represented by a kaleidoscope of soil formulations, methods for applying them, an assortment of paints, writing systems, etc.
Most often, tempera paints were used (mainly solid ones), which were used to finish and prescribe frescoes when their paint layer had dried, which was often dictated by the need to correct failed fragments and add details.
“The statement of individual researchers that Michelangelo, Raphael, and many other Italian masters of the 16th century wrote their works only using the technique of one clean mural is completely incorrect. They, like in earlier centuries, used dry plaster retouching and painting with separate mineral paints in the form of tempera. ” However, J. B. Armenini (XVI century) in his treatise writes that in his time some artists retouched frescoes even with pastel pencils and oil paints. It should be added that in none of the monuments of Russian mural painting of the X-XVIII centuries murals made only by a fresco – all of them to one degree or another are finished dry. Nowhere has there ever been a fresco painted like watercolors, that is, the writing system is very liquid, diluted only with water colors and paints. Modern science has no unconditional reason to consider the fresco as the oldest technique of mural painting, since scientific studies of the soils of ancient Egyptian murals conducted in our time convincingly show that the ancient Egyptian culture did not know lime and that this material came there only in the Ptolemaic era, that is, not earlier than IV century BC e.
The fresco is among other techniques of monumental painting, closest to easel by the very process of writing with paints. And although the artist does not work with a palette in his hand and not at the easel, but near the wall (often huge), the painting in its manifestation is one. A wet colorful brush in the artist’s hand is subordinate to his will, his character. We see in the frescoes the power of modeling with color, traces of strokes, density, transparency of paints and at the same time “sound”.

MASTERPIECES OF PASTEL FROM FUNDS OF THE TREYAKOV GALLERY (part 2)
In Russia, pastel technique appeared in the second half of the XVIII century, but never reached such popularity as in Europe. The first pastors known to us were invited foreign…

...

PRINT. CLASSIFICATION AND VARIETIES (part 1)
An engraving (from French estampe) is a generalized name for works of printed graphics, which is an engraving or any other print on paper from a printing form. There are…

...

LENINGRAD SCHOOL OF PAINTING (part 2)
In the narrow, literal sense, the Leningrad school usually means the Leningrad Institute of Painting, Sculpture and Architecture named after I.E. Repin (LIZHSA) from 1932 until the early 1990s, its…

...

LENINGRAD SCHOOL OF PAINTING (part 1)
The history of the Leningrad school of painting covers the period from the beginning of the 1930s to the beginning of the 1990s. Having arisen in the midst of a…

...