HISTORY OF LANDSCAPE GENRE DEVELOPMENT (part 1)
Translated from French, the word “landscape” (paysage) means “nature”. This is what the genre is called in fine art, the main task of which is the reproduction of natural or…

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HISTORY OF THE ORIGIN AND DEVELOPMENT OF MONUMENTAL PAINTING (part 2)
The term “fresco” came to Russia from Italy no earlier than the 18th century. This can be judged by the fact that even in the XVI-XVII centuries it was not…

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MASTERPIECES OF PASTEL FROM FUNDS OF THE TREYAKOV GALLERY (part 1)
The collection of the State Tretyakov Gallery contains about 800 pastels, some were purchased by P.M. Tretyakov. Pastel must be stored under glass. It is very vulnerable: it can fall…

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HISTORY OF LANDSCAPE GENRE DEVELOPMENT (part 2)

Landscape motifs began to play a more important role during the High Renaissance. Many artists began to carefully study nature. Having abandoned the usual construction of spatial plans in the form of wings, piling up parts that are inconsistent in scale, they turned to scientific developments in the field of linear perspective. Now the landscape, presented as a whole picture, is becoming an essential element of artistic plots. So, in the altar compositions, which the painters most often referred to, the landscape looks like a scene with human figures in the foreground.
Despite such obvious progress, until the sixteenth century, artists included landscape details in their works only as a backdrop for a religious scene, genre composition or portrait. The clearest example of this is the famous portrait of Mona Lisa (c. 1503, Louvre, Paris), painted by Leonardo da Vinci.
The great painter with remarkable skill conveyed on his canvas the inextricable link between man and nature, showed harmony and beauty, which for many centuries now have made the audience freeze in admiration before the “Mona Lisa”.
Behind the back of a young woman, boundless expanses of the universe open: mountain peaks, forests, rivers and seas. This magnificent landscape is confirmed by the idea that the human person is as versatile and complex as the natural world. But people are not able to comprehend the many secrets of the surrounding world, and this as if confirms a mysterious smile on the lips of the Mona Lisa.
Gradually, the landscape went beyond other art genres. This was facilitated by the development of easel painting. In small-sized paintings by the Dutch master I. Patiner and the German artist A. Altdorfer, the landscape begins to dominate the scenes shown in the foreground.
Many researchers consider Albrecht Altdorfer to be the founder of German landscape painting. Small human figures on his canvas “Forest landscape with the battle of St. George ”(1510, Old Pinakothek, Munich) are lost among mighty tree trunks, whose powerful crowns obscure the earth from sunlight.
Later written “Danube Landscape” (c. 1520-1525, Old Pinakothek, Munich) and “Landscape with Wert Castle” (c. 1522-1530, Old Pinakothek, Munich) indicate that now the image of nature is the main and, probably , the artist’s only task.

HISTORY OF THE ORIGIN AND DEVELOPMENT OF THE WHITE ART
Thread painting "A tapestry is a beauty, slowly created by warm, skillful hands, a calm mind and a sensitive soul." I. Dvorkina Today, a variety of decorative and applied art,…

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EXCURSION TO THE WORLD OF GRAPHICS
Graphics is the art of drawing. A graphic image, as a rule, consists of lines, strokes, dots, etc. By its nature, a graphic image is more conventional than a pictorial…

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CLASSIFICATION OF WORKS OF THE FINE ART
Classification of works of art by type, material, technique and genre. Works of fine art are divided into the following main types: painting, graphics, sculpture, decorative and applied art. Recently,…

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RUSSIAN Vanguard. MAIN DIRECTIONS (part 2)
Russian avant-garde of his goals and aspirations. Like the trends of modernism that preceded it, the avant-garde was aimed at a radical transformation of human consciousness by means of art,…

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