WHAT IS ENAMEL?
Enamel is a glassy, ​​frozen mass of an oxide composition formed by partial or complete melting, sometimes with the addition of metals, deposited on a metal base. Other materials and…

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HISTORY OF THE ORIGIN AND DEVELOPMENT OF MONUMENTAL PAINTING (part 1)
FRESCO It is customary to divide the painting into easel and monumental. To easel painting is one that is made with oil paints on canvas, cardboard or other solid material.…

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RUSSIAN ACADEMY OF ART OF ST. PETERSBURG (part 1)
In 2007, the Russian Academy of Arts celebrates its 250th anniversary. November 17, 1757 (old style - November 6) - The governing Senate of the Russian Empire adopted a decree…

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HISTORY OF LANDSCAPE GENRE DEVELOPMENT (part 2)

Landscape motifs began to play a more important role during the High Renaissance. Many artists began to carefully study nature. Having abandoned the usual construction of spatial plans in the form of wings, piling up parts that are inconsistent in scale, they turned to scientific developments in the field of linear perspective. Now the landscape, presented as a whole picture, is becoming an essential element of artistic plots. So, in the altar compositions, which the painters most often referred to, the landscape looks like a scene with human figures in the foreground.
Despite such obvious progress, until the sixteenth century, artists included landscape details in their works only as a backdrop for a religious scene, genre composition or portrait. The clearest example of this is the famous portrait of Mona Lisa (c. 1503, Louvre, Paris), painted by Leonardo da Vinci.
The great painter with remarkable skill conveyed on his canvas the inextricable link between man and nature, showed harmony and beauty, which for many centuries now have made the audience freeze in admiration before the “Mona Lisa”.
Behind the back of a young woman, boundless expanses of the universe open: mountain peaks, forests, rivers and seas. This magnificent landscape is confirmed by the idea that the human person is as versatile and complex as the natural world. But people are not able to comprehend the many secrets of the surrounding world, and this as if confirms a mysterious smile on the lips of the Mona Lisa.
Gradually, the landscape went beyond other art genres. This was facilitated by the development of easel painting. In small-sized paintings by the Dutch master I. Patiner and the German artist A. Altdorfer, the landscape begins to dominate the scenes shown in the foreground.
Many researchers consider Albrecht Altdorfer to be the founder of German landscape painting. Small human figures on his canvas “Forest landscape with the battle of St. George ”(1510, Old Pinakothek, Munich) are lost among mighty tree trunks, whose powerful crowns obscure the earth from sunlight.
Later written “Danube Landscape” (c. 1520-1525, Old Pinakothek, Munich) and “Landscape with Wert Castle” (c. 1522-1530, Old Pinakothek, Munich) indicate that now the image of nature is the main and, probably , the artist’s only task.

WHAT IS ENAMEL?
Enamel is a glassy, ​​frozen mass of an oxide composition formed by partial or complete melting, sometimes with the addition of metals, deposited on a metal base. Other materials and…

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STYLES AND DIRECTIONS IN THE FINE ART (part 2)
Classicism - an artistic style in Western European art of the XVII - beginning. XIX century and in the Russian XVIII - early. XIX, referring to the ancient heritage as…

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LENINGRAD SCHOOL OF PAINTING (part 2)
In the narrow, literal sense, the Leningrad school usually means the Leningrad Institute of Painting, Sculpture and Architecture named after I.E. Repin (LIZHSA) from 1932 until the early 1990s, its…

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HISTORY OF LANDSCAPE GENRE DEVELOPMENT (part 1)
Translated from French, the word “landscape” (paysage) means “nature”. This is what the genre is called in fine art, the main task of which is the reproduction of natural or…

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