EXCURSION TO THE WORLD OF PAINTING (part 2)
By depicting reality on a two-dimensional plane, painting creates the illusion of three-dimensionality and volume: people and objects appear to be at different distances from the viewer — some closer,…

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PRINT. CLASSIFICATION AND VARIETIES (part 1)
An engraving (from French estampe) is a generalized name for works of printed graphics, which is an engraving or any other print on paper from a printing form. There are…

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RUSSIAN Vanguard. MAIN DIRECTIONS (part 1)
The concept of avant-garde. And its differences from modernism. What is the difference between avant-garde and modernism? This issue is still controversial; There are several enduring traditions of understanding the…

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STYLES AND DIRECTIONS IN THE FINE ART (part 2)

Classicism – an artistic style in Western European art of the XVII – beginning. XIX century and in the Russian XVIII – early. XIX, referring to the ancient heritage as an ideal for imitation. It manifested itself in architecture, sculpture, painting, arts and crafts. Classic artists considered antiquity the highest achievement and made it their standard in art, which they sought to imitate. Over time, degenerated into academicism.
Romanticism Romanticism is a trend in European and Russian art of the 1820-1830s that replaced classicism. Romantics highlighted individuality, contrasting the idealistic beauty of the classicists with “imperfect” reality. Artists were attracted by bright, rare, extraordinary phenomena, as well as images of a fantastic nature. In the art of romanticism, a sharp role is played by keen individual perception and experience. Romanticism freed art from abstract classic dogmas and turned it to national history and images of folklore.
Sentimentalism Sentimentalism – (from lat. Sentiment – feeling) – the direction of Western art of the second half of the XVIII., Expressing disappointment in “civilization” based on the ideals of “reason” (the ideology of Enlightenment). S. proclaims the feeling, secluded reflection, simplicity of the rural life of the “little man.” S.J.Russo is considered the ideologist of S.
Realism Realism is a direction in art, striving with the greatest truth and reliability to reflect both the external form and the essence of phenomena and things. As a creative method combines individual and typical features in creating an image. The longest direction in existence, developing from the primitive era to the present day.
Symbolism Symbolism is a trend in European art culture of the late XIX-early XX centuries. Arising as a reaction to the dominance in the humanitarian sphere of the norms of bourgeois “sanity” (in philosophy, aesthetics – positivism, in art – naturalism), symbolism first took shape in French literature of the late 1860s and 70s, later became widespread in Belgium and Germany , Austria, Norway, Russia. The aesthetic principles of symbolism in many respects went back to the ideas of romanticism, as well as to some doctrines of the idealistic philosophy of A. Schopenhauer, E. Hartmann, partly F. Nietzsche, the creativity and theorizing of the German composer R. Wagner. Symbolism contrasted the living reality with a world of visions and dreams. A universal tool for comprehending the secrets of being and individual consciousness was considered a symbol generated by poetic insight and expressing the otherworldly meaning of phenomena hidden from ordinary consciousness. The artist-creator was considered as a mediator between the real and the super-sensual, everywhere finding the “signs” of world harmony, prophetically guessing the signs of the future both in modern phenomena and in events of the past.
Impressionism Impressionism – (from the French impression – impression) direction in the art of the last third of the XIX – early XX centuries., Arose in France. The name was introduced by art critic L. Leroy, who scornfully spoke about the exhibition of artists of 1874, where, among others, a painting by C. Monet “Sunrise. Impression”. Impressionism affirmed the beauty of the real world, emphasizing the freshness of the first impression, the variability of the environment. The predominant attention to the solution of purely pictorial problems reduced the traditional idea of ​​drawing as the main component of a work of art. Impressionism had a powerful impact on the art of European countries and the United States, aroused interest in stories from real life. (E. Manet, E. Degas, O. Renoir, C. Monet, A. Sisley and others.)
Pointillism Pointillism is a trend in painting (a synonym for divisionism) that developed within the framework of neo-impressionism. Neo-impressionism arose in France in 1885 and became widespread also in Belgium and Italy. Neo-Impressionists tried to apply the latest advances in optics in art, according to which painting performed in separate points of the primary colors in visual perception gives a fusion of colors and the whole gamut of painting. (J. Cera, P. Signac, C. Pissarro).
Modern Post-Impressionism is a conditional collective name for the main directions of French painting of the XIX – 1st quarter. XX century The art of post-impressionism arose as a reaction to impressionism, which fixed attention on the transmission of the moment, on the feeling of pictoriality and lost interest in the shape of objects. Among the post-impressionists are P. Cezanne, P. Gauguin, V. Gogh and others.
Modern Art Nouveau is a style in European and American art on the coast of the 19th-20th centuries. The model reinterpreted and styled the traits of the art of different epoxes, and worked on the related good practices, which are based on the principle of sensitivity, opt. The object of the stylization of the modern also become and natural forms.

LENINGRAD SCHOOL OF PAINTING (part 1)
The history of the Leningrad school of painting covers the period from the beginning of the 1930s to the beginning of the 1990s. Having arisen in the midst of a…

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MASTERPIECES OF PASTEL FROM FUNDS OF THE TREYAKOV GALLERY (part 2)
In Russia, pastel technique appeared in the second half of the XVIII century, but never reached such popularity as in Europe. The first pastors known to us were invited foreign…

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LENINGRAD SCHOOL OF PAINTING (part 4)
However, in 1928, after a series of publications in the journal Revolution and Culture, edited by N. I. Bukharin, supported by the section of literature and art of the Communist…

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RUSSIAN ACADEMY OF ART OF ST. PETERSBURG (part 2)
Under Catherine II, in 1764, a new detailed Charter of the Imperial Academy of Arts was adopted, and the close sovereign Ivan Ivanovich Betskoy became president. The Empress wrote: "For…

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