Under Catherine II, in 1764, a new detailed Charter of the Imperial Academy of Arts was adopted, and the close sovereign Ivan Ivanovich Betskoy became president. The Empress wrote: “For better encouragement and success, We, having taken this Academy into Our patronage … determine it to be under our sole Imperial jurisdiction, providing it with the amount necessary for its maintenance.” In the early period of the reign of Catherine II, a kind of “state utopia” of enlightened Russia arose, and the Academy of Arts had to play an important role in creating a visible image of the transformed empire.
Catherine II described her reign in a letter to her permanent correspondent, ambassador of the tiny German state of Saxe-Goth in Paris, Baron Melchior Grimm, ironically alluding to one of La Fontaine’s fables and, in addition Continue reading
The concept of avant-garde. And its differences from modernism.
What is the difference between avant-garde and modernism? This issue is still controversial; There are several enduring traditions of understanding the differences between avant-garde and modernism. There is only one way out: use the version that seems the most intelligible and logical.
First, chronologically, modernism preceded the vanguard. Vanguard is a product of the revolutionary era of the early twentieth century, while modernism arose at the end of the nineteenth. Continue reading
When sunlight penetrates through the high openings of windows, stained glass paintings, stained glass patterns seem to flash, light up in bright color, begin to glow, transforming the interior, filling it with a fantastic play of colored glass.
Stained-glass window is one of the most remarkable phenomena of monumental art. He got his current name from the French word “vitrage” – glass. Until recently, this term was understood as an ornamental or plot decorative composition (in a window, door, partition, in the form of an independent panel) made of glass or other material that transmits light.
According to scientists, the simplest stained-glass windows existed already in Ancient Egypt from the 2nd millennium BC. and in ancient Rome – from the 1st millennium A.D. Continue reading